can be synthetically produced or naturally derived, as well as contained in oils, extracts and floral waters. But what do they do?
in an alphabetical order...
Retinol, Retinoic acid, at al
and Carotene too! Which is a provitamin A, which means we convert it into vitamin A once consumed.
When applied topically on the skin, vitamin A affects the cells on a fundamental level, bringing then back to their optimal being. The most potent derivatives of it, affect gene expression of the cell directly in its nuclei, normalizing the processed happening there, this affecting the skin cells turnover.
It is highly effective in the fight against photodamage from the sun, potent enemy of acne and wrinkle formation and a time proven stimulator of collagen production. All in all - fantastic add on for the skin. Few ingredients can compete with it's level of efficacy.
It may come a little too strong for some sensitive skins, so be patient when choosing the right product for you. A little goes a long way in the world of retinol. Minor redness or irritation the first times of application are normal, you may need to get used to it. If it feels too uncomfortable, maybe it is too strong of a concentration for you.
It is also unstable, so it requires appropriate formulation and packaging too.
Niacinamide, Panthenol, at al
There are 8 different such.
With B3, a.k.a niacinamide, being probably the most important one when it goes to skin care. Deficiency of it may be the cause of rashes, dermatitis and other unpleasant conditions.
It contributes to evening of skin tone and fighting hyperpigmentation, strengthening the skin barrier, allowing it to hold onto moisture, while opposing outside stress better. Vitamin B also helps the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles and tightens pores.
Most B vitamins bring, just like to our whole body, energy to the skin and skin cells' metabolism.
Quite famous one, this one, as one of the most potent antioxidants.
By fighting free-radicals attacking the skin from outside, while also produced by our bodily functions, vitamin C protects the skin and its regular function. It is needed in the process of collagen production, which is the main protein in the skin, making it firm and keeping it in place.
Additionally, it helps with pigmentation, such as brown, sun and age spots.
Everyone loves it for so long, and for a reason. It may be applied in the morning, followed by SPF product, as well as at night.